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Heritage Lates: Anaesthetic Murders

Friday 17th MaY

Doors open 5.45pm, lecture begins at 6.15pm

With silent killers like curare or thiopentone, it’s no wonder the world of anaesthetics has seen its share of murder and scandal.

Join us for another of our successful ‘after-hours’ events at the Anaesthesia Heritage Centre in celebration of the Museums at Night Festival.

In line with our current exhibition on the deadly arrow poison curare, Dr. Ann Ferguson will be speaking on the controversial topic of anaesthetic murders. Visitors will then be guided downstairs for a ‘pick your poison’ workshop with Victory Gin where you will create your own unique blend of gin to take home with you. Nibbles and snacks will be available.

Food, drinks and ‘pick your poison’ workshop, all included in ticket price.

£20 per person + booking fee

Tickets: http://bit.ly/2W5ARp1

Location: Anaesthesia Heritage Centre, Association of Anaesthetists, 21 Portland Place, London, W1B 1PY

Syringe, needle and medicine vial.

New exhibition open: Doctor says relax

The Amazonian arrow poison that revolutionised Anaesthesia

The Anaesthesia Heritage Centre has opened a new temporary exhibition on muscle relaxants. It showcases authentic curare weapons alongside anaesthetic equipment to tell the history of muscle relaxants in the practice of anaesthesia.

Curare is a deadly poison found in the Amazonian Basin of South America. When injected into the bloodstream it acts as a muscle relaxant which paralyses and asphyxiates prey.

Atalaia du Norde, Amazonia / Brazil - FEB 02 2016:Tribal elder Binan Tukum hunting with his son for monkeys in the rainforest

[TRIBAL ELDER BINAN TUKUM HUNTING WITH HIS SON FOR MONKEYS IN THE RAINFOREST. COPYRIGHT LAZLO MATES]

Curare was the first muscle relaxant (or neuro-muscular blocking agent) to be introduced into western medicine. It revolutionised the practice of anaesthesia and allowed life saving operations, which were previously considered too dangerous, to be performed for the first time.

South American tribes will shoot curare coated darts or arrows from blow pipes and bows to kill or stun animals for food and clothing. The process of mixing the curare poison and creating weapons is a highly skilled process. Different strengths of poison are needed for different sized prey, and mixing these accurately can only be determined by taste; curare is not toxic through ingestion alone.

south american indians preparing curare_ wellcome collection

[SOUTH AMERICAN INDIANS PREPARING CURARE. WELLCOME COLLECTION]

Arrow poison has been known to Europeans since Sir Water Raleigh’s expeditions to Guyana in 1595. It was first brought back to England in the 1760s by Edward Bancroft (1741-1821) who had encountered the poison during his time in Guyana writing ‘An Essay on the Natural History of Guiana in South America’.

Naturalist Charles Waterton (1782-1865) brought curare samples, or ‘woorali’ as he called it, back to England in the early nineteenth century and conducted experiments on animals. Alongside Benjamin Collins Brodie (1783-1862), Waterton administered woorali to a she ass whilst ventilating her with a bellows until the poison wore off.

After Waterton’s experiments, more scientific work was conducted by physicians of the nineteenth century. It was Claude Bernard’s (1813-78) experiments on frogs in 1844 which showed conclusively that curare was acting as a muscle relaxant. He noted that “it is an anaesthetic agent only in appearance. The animal feels, but cannot show it”.

It wouldn’t be until the 20th century that the successful use of curare as a muscle relaxant in surgery was documented. The first recognized success was in North America by Harold Griffith and Enid Johnson, who used the preparation of curare, Intocostrin, during an appendectomy in 1942. In Britain, Cecil Gray found Intocostrin unreliable and instead popularised the use of d-tubocurarine chloride which was more consistent in its potency. D-tubocurarine would become the muscle relaxant of choice until curare-like synthetic agents replaced natural curare from the 1980s onward.

A642913|A642913/1|A642913/2

[TUBURINE AMPOULES AND PACKED. SCIENCE MUSEUM]

Before the advent of curare in the 1940s, in order to achieve muscle relaxation anaesthetists would have had to administer a very deep ether or cyclopropane anaesthesia which could cause a number of heart, liver or kidney complications. Additionally, with the total paralysis of a patient’s diaphragm, these surgeries were only possible with the invention of tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation of the lungs. Now, with thanks to muscle relaxants and manual ventilation, life saving heart, brain and thoracic surgeries can be performed.

Doctor says relax is free to view, open Monday to Friday, 10am to 4pm, last entry 3.30pm (excluding bank holidays). Free tours of our little museum are available on request, please email Sophie Johnson at heritage@aagbi.org. Tours can be tailored to your interests.

Heritage Centre Lates 2017

Join us for the next Lates event on the 19 May 2017. We welcome back author Dr Emily Mayhew, who will be talking about her new book (and signing copies too!) A Heavy Reckoning: War, Medicine and Survival in Afghanistan and Beyond, which will be launched in May 2017. A Heavy Reckoning explores trauma and medicine in wartime from the First World War to Afghanistan and modern rehabilitation centres.

Places at this special event are limited and tickets are just £15 (inc drinks, canapés and a private viewing of the latest exhibition The Price of a Mile. Book your ticket here.

q1348-battle-of-ancre-heights

Price of a Mile Exhibition Launch

Join us on the 7 October for a very special launch event…

The Heritage Centre’s latest exhibition, The Price of a Mile, explores the anaesthetics and pain relief during the Battle of the Somme, and the facilities and techniques used by medical teams in 1916.

The exhibition will be launched with a special talk and panel discussion, followed by a drinks reception and private view.

Hear from Dr Emily Mayhew, author of ‘Wounded’, the story of the journey from injury on the battlefield to recovery in Britain for the soldiers and people who cared for them on the frontline.

Prof Roger Kneebone, Professor of Surgical Education and Engagement Science at Imperial College, and Dr Jean Horton, retired anaesthetist and past President of the History of Anaesthesia Society, will be discuss medical care during the Battle of the Somme.

Sample a special canapé menu to commemorate the Battle of the Somme and the Allied combat nations.

Book your place today

Friday 7 October, 18.00-20.00

Tickets are £10 and include complimentary drinks and canapés and a private viewing of the exhibition, The Price of a Mile. Places are available on a first-come, first-served basis.

For more information, email heritage@aagbi.org

Happy World Anaesthesia Day!

Today is World Anaesthesia Day, and commemorates the first public demonstration of ether on the 16th of October 1846.

The demonstration took place at the Massachusetts General Hospital, now preserved as the Ether Dome, on a patient having a tumour removed from his neck. The surgeon was Dr John Collins Warren, and the ether was given by William T G Morton using an inhaler of his own design.

Morton
A replica of Morton’s inhaler, on display in the Anaesthesia Heritage Centre

Morton had studied at the Baltimore College of Dental School and Harvard Medical School, though left before graduating on both occasions. At Harvard, Morton had attended lectures given by Dr Charles T Jackson, in which he demonstrated that ether could cause a loss of consciousness. It seems that Jackson and his students missed any connection between ether and the potential for painless surgery, until on the 30th of September 1846 when Morton experimented with ether for a tooth extraction. The procedure was successful and Morton’s account was published in the newspapers. Just over a fortnight later, he was invited to give ether in a public demonstration. After the operation was successfully complete and the patient conscious, Warren reputedly turned to his audience to say ‘Gentlemen, this is no humbug!’

Hinckley
The First Operation under Ether by Robert Hinckley

Among this audience was another surgeon, Dr Jacob Bigelow. He wrote of the events to a friend in London, and within a few days of his letter reaching England, ether was being used on surgical and dental patients in London.